The War of American Independence



American Revolution, 1775-1783

Archibald, E. H. H. The Wooden Fighting Ship in the Royal Navy AD 897-1860. New York: Arco Publishing Co., 1970.

Albion, Robert Greenhalgh. Forests and Sea Power: the Timber Problem of the Royal Navy, 1752-1862. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1926.

Bowles, Francis Tiffany. "America's Debt to Grasse." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 60 (April 1927), pp. 235-250.

Clark, William Bell, et al., editors. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1964--.

Dodds, James, and James Moore. Building the Wooden Fighting Ship. New York: Facts on File, 1984.

Dull, Jonathan R. "Mahan, Sea Power, and the War for American Independence." International Historical Review, 10 (February 1988), pp. 59-67.

Goodrich, C. F. "Howe and D'Estaing: A Study in Coast Defense." Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, 22 (1896), pp. 577-586.

Lynch, Barbara A., compiler. The War at Sea: France and the American Revolution, A Bibliography. Washington: Department of the Navy, 1976.

Mahan, Alfred T. The Major Operations of the Navies in the American War of Independence. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1913.

Naval History Division, Department of the Navy, editors. Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977.

Smith, Myron J., Jr. Navies in the American Revolution: a bibliography. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1973.

Syrett, David. "American and British Naval Historians and the American Revolutionary War, 1875-1980." American Neptune, 42 (July 1982), pp. 179-192.

Tracy, Nicholas. "British Assessments of French and Spanish Naval Reconstruction 1763-1778." Mariner's Mirror, 61 (February 1975), pp. 73-85.

Hinchinbrooke. (Huntingdonshire, England).
Lord Sandwich Correspondence. National Archives and Records Administration. (Washington). Naval Records Collection. (Record Group 45).

Allard, Dean C. "The Potomac Navy of 1776." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 84 (October 1976): 411-430.

Allen, Gardner W. Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1927. 356 pp.

-----. A Naval History of the American Revolution. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1913. 2 vols. (Reprinted 1962 by Russell & Russell; 1970 by Corner House).

Augur, Helen. The Secret War of Independence. New York: Duell Little, 1955. 381 pp.

A study of the "commercial-maritime-diplomatic complex" that evolved around the activities of Benjamin Franklin.

Barnes, John S., ed. The Logs of the Serapis-Alliance-Ariel, Under the Command of John Paul Jones, 1779-1780. New York: Naval History Society, 1911. 138 pp.

Beattie, Donald W., and J. Richard Collins. Washington's New England Fleet: Beverly's Role in Its Origins, 1775-77. Salem, Mass.: Newcomb & Gauss, 1969. 69 pp.

Bird, Harrison. Navies in the Mountains: The Battles on the Waters of Lake Champlain and Lake George, 1609-1814. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1962. 361 pp.

Bon Homme Richard (Ship). The Log of the Bon Homme Richard. Mystic, Conn.: Marine Historical Assn., 1936. 61 pp.

Log of cruise out of L'orient, August 4-September 24, 1779, Captain John Paul Jones commanding. Covers victory over HMS Serapis off Flamborough Head. Includes account of action written by Midshipman Nathaniel Fanning.

Boudriot, Jean. John Paul Jones and the Bonhomme Richard: A Reconstruction of the Ship and an Account of the Battle With H.M.S. Serapis. Translated by David H. Roberts. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987. 127 pp.

Bradford, James C. "The Navies of the American Revolution." In In Peace and War, Interpretations of American Naval History, 2d ed., edited by Kenneth J. Hagan, 3-26. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1984.

Includes bibliographical essay.

Breen, Kenneth C. "A Reinforcement Reduced? Rodney's Flawed Appraisal of French Plans, West Indies, 1781." In New Interpretations in Naval History: Selected Papers From the Ninth Naval History Symposium, edited by William R. Roberts and Jack Sweetman, 161-172. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1991.

Brewington, Marion V. "American Naval Guns, 1775-1785." American Neptune 3 (January 1943): 11- 18, 148-158.

-----. "The Designs of Our First Frigates." American Neptune 8 (January 1948): 11-25.

Cayford, John E. The Penobscot Expedition: Being an Account of the Largest American Naval Engagement of the Revolutionary War. Orrington, Maine: C & H Pub. Co., 1976. 131 pp.

Chadwick, French E., ed. The Graves Papers and Other Documents Relating to the Naval Operations of the Yorktown Campaign, July to October, 1781. New York: Naval History Society, 1916. 268 pp. (Reprinted 1968 by Arno).

Admiral Thomas Graves commanded the British fleet at Yorktown.

Clark, William Bell. Ben Franklin's Privateers: A Naval Epic of the American Revolution. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1956. 198 pp. (Reprinted 1969 by Greenwood).

-----. George Washington's Navy: Being an Account of His Excellency's Fleet in New England Waters. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1960. 275 pp.

Coggins, Jack. Ships and Seamen of the American Revolution: Vessels, Crews, Weapons, Gear, Naval Tactics, and Actions of the War for Independence. Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1969. 224 pp. (Reprinted 1975 by Promontory Press).

Crawford, Michael J. "The Joint Allied Operation at Rhode Island, 1778." In New Interpretations in Naval History: Selected Papers From the Ninth Naval History Symposium, edited by William R. Roberts and Jack Sweetman, 227-242. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1991.

Doniol, Henri. Histoire de la Participation de la France a` l'Etablissement des Etats-Unis d' Amerique. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1886-1892. 5 vols. (Reprinted 1967 by B. Franklin).

Dudley, William S. "Maryland at War on the Chesapeake, 1776-1783." In New Aspects of Naval History: Selected Papers Presented at the Fourth Naval History Symposium, United States Naval Academy, 25-26 October 1979, edited by Craig L. Symonds, 102-121. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1981.

Dull, Jonathan R. The French Navy and American Independence: A Study of Arms and Diplomacy, 1774-1787. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1975. 437 pp.

Eller, Ernest M., ed. Chesapeake Bay in the American Revolution. Centreville, Md.: Tidewater Pubs., 1981. 600 pp.

A collection of fourteen documented essays. The editor, Rear Admiral Ernest McNeill Eller, former Director of Naval History, contributed the opening and closing essays. Includes a chronology.

-----. Naval Weapons of the American Revolution, 1775-1783. Washington: American Defense Preparedness Assn., 1976. 32 pp.

Fanning, Nathaniel. Fanning's Narrative: Being the Memoirs of Nathaniel Fanning, an Officer of the Revolutionary Navy, 1778-1783. Edited and annotated by John S. Barnes. New York: Naval History Society, 1912. 258 pp. (Reprinted 1968 by Arno).

Critical appraisal of John Paul Jones by one of his officers.

Fowler, William M. Rebels Under Sail: The American Navy During the Revolution. New York: Scribner, 1976. 356 pp.

French, Allen. The First Year of the American Revolution. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1934. 795 pp. (Reprinted 1967 by Octagon).

Hopkins, Esek. The Correspondence of Esek Hopkins, Commander- in-Chief of the United States Navy . . . in the Library of the Rhode Island Historical Society. Edited by Alverda S. Beck. Providence: Rhode Island Historical Society, 1933. 101 pp.

-----. The Letter Book of Esek Hopkins, Commander-in-Chief of the United States Navy, 1775-1777 . . . in the Library of the Rhode Island Historical Society. Edited by Alverda S. Beck. Providence: Rhode Island Historical Society, 1932. 151 pp.

Jackson, John W. The Pennsylvania Navy, 1775-1781: The Defense of the Delaware. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1974. 514 pp.

James, William M. The British Navy in Adversity: A Study of the War of American Independence. London: Longmans, Green, & Co., 1926. 459 pp. (Reprinted 1970 by Russell).

Jamieson, Allan G. "The Battle of Grenada and Caribbean Strategy, 1779." In Naval History: The Seventh Symposium of the U.S. Naval Academy, edited by William B. Cogar, 55-62. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1988.

Jones, John Paul. John Paul Jones' Memoir of the American Revolution Presented to King Louis XVI of France. Translated and edited by Gerard W. Gawalt. Washington: Library of Congress; GPO, 1978. 116 pp.

Knox, Dudley W. The Naval Genius of George Washington. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1932. 138 pp.

Larrabee, Harold A. Decision at the Chesapeake. New York: C. N. Potter, 1964. 317 pp.

Lossing, Benson J. The Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution. New York: Harper, 1859. 2 vols. (Reprinted 1976 by New Hampshire Pub. Co.).

Lundeberg, Philip K. The Continental Gunboat Philadelphia and the Northern Campaign of 1776. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1966. unp.

Mackesy, Piers. The War for America, 1775-1783. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1964. 565 pp.

Maclay, Edgar S. A History of American Privateers. New York: Appleton, 1899. 519 pp. (Reprinted 1967 by Books for Libraries).

Mahan, Alfred T. The Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence. Boston: Little, Brown, 1913. 280 pp. (Reprinted 1968 by Greenwood).

Metzger, Charles H. The Prisoner in the American Revolution. Chicago: Loyola Univ. Press, 1971. 309 pp.

Middlebrook, Louis F. History of Maritime Connecticut During the American Revolution, 1775-1783. Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1925. 2 vols.

Miller, Nathan. Sea of Glory: The Continental Navy Fights for Independence, 1775-1785. New York: D. McKay Co., 1974. 558 pp.

Morgan, William J. "The Governor's Floating Town." The Iron Worker 35 (Autumn 1971): 2-10.

The plight of Lord Dunmore's Tory followers at Gwynn Island and elsewhere in Chesapeake Bay.

-----. "'The Pivot Upon Which Everything Turned': French Naval Superiority That Ensured Victory at Yorktown." The Iron Worker 22 (Spring 1958): 1-9.

Reprinted in Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine 93 (May 1959): 485-487. Also reprinted in All Hands (December 1959): 59-63, under the title, "Seapower Turns the Tide-1781."

Neeser, Robert W., ed. Letters and Papers Relating to the Cruises of Gustavus Conyngham, a Captain of the Continental Navy, 1777-1779. New York: Naval History Society, 1915. 241 pp. (Reprinted 1970 by Kennikat).

Paullin, Charles O. The Navy of the American Revolution: Its Administration, Its Policy and Its Achievements. Cleveland: Burrows, 1906. 549 pp. (Reprinted 1970 by Haskell).

Peckham, Howard H. The War for Independence, a Military History. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958. 226 pp.

Powell, Nowland Van. The American Navies of the Revolutionary War. New York: Putnam, 1974. 128 pp.

Rankin, Hugh F. "The Naval Flag of the American Revolution." William and Mary Quarterly 2 (1954): 339-353.

Rider, Hope S. Valour Fore & Aft: Being the Adventures of the Continental Sloop Providence, 1775- 1779, Formerly Flagship Katy of Rhode Island's Navy. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1977. 259 pp.

Rogers, Ernest E. Connecticut's Naval Office at New London During the War of the American Revolution, Including the Mercantile Letter Book of Nathaniel Shaw, Jr. New London, Conn.: New London County Historical Society, 1933. 358 pp.

Sands, John O. Yorktown's Captive Fleet. Mariners Museum Pub. No. 41. Published for the Mariners' Museum, Newport News, by the University Press of Virginia, 1983. 267 pp.

Sandwich, John Montague, 4th Earl of. The Private Papers of John, Earl of Sandwich, First Lord of the Admiralty, 1771-1782. Edited by G. R. Barnes and J. H. Owen. London: Navy Records Society, 1932- 1938. 4 vols.

Scheina, Robert L. "A Matter of Definition: A New Jersey Navy, 1777-1783." American Neptune 39 (July 1979): 209-217.

Schermerhorn, Frank E. American and French Flags of the Revolution, 1775-1783. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Society of Sons of the Revolution, 1948. 148 pp.

Serle, Ambrose. The American Journal of Ambrose Serle, Secretary to Lord Howe, 1776-1778. Edited by Edward H. Tatum, Jr. San Marino, Calif.: The Huntington Library, 1940. 369 pp. (Reprinted 1969 by Arno).

Shuldham, Molyneux, Baron. The Despatches of Molyneux Shuldham, Vice-Admiral of the Blue and Commander-in-Chief of His Britannic Majesty's Ships in North America, January-July, 1776. Edited by Robert W. Neeser. New York: Naval History Society, 1913. 330 pp.

Smith, Charles R. Marines in the Revolution: A History of the Continental Marines in the American Revolution, 1775-1783. Washington: History and Museums Div., Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1975. 491 pp.

Stevens, Benjamin F., comp. B. F. Stevens' Facsimiles of Manuscripts in European Archives Relating to America, 1773-1783. London: Malby & Sons, 1889-1895. 2107 facsim. (Reprinted 1970 by Mellifont).

Index. London: C. Whittingham & Co., 1898. 351 pp. (Reprinted 1970 by Mellifont).

Stewart, Robert A. The History of Virginia's Navy of the Revolution. Richmond: Mitchell & Hotchkiss, 1934. 279 pp.

Stout, Neil R. The Royal Navy in America, 1760-1775: A Study of Enforcement of British Colonial Policy in the Era of the American Revolution. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1973. 227 pp.

Syrett, David. Shipping and the American War 1775-83: A Study of British Transport Organization. London: Univ. of London, Athlone Press, 1970. 274 pp.

Syrett, David. The Royal Navy in American Waters, 1775-1783 Gower Publishing Company, Limited, Pub. Date: January 1989.

U.S. Continental Congress. Marine Committee. Out-Letters of the Continental Marine Committee and Board of Admiralty, August, 1776-September, 1780. Edited by Charles 0. Paullin, New York: Naval History Society, 1914. 2 vols.

Primary source material for the administration and operations of the Continental Navy.

U.S. Library of Congress. Naval Records of the American Revolution, 1775-1788. Prepared From the Originals in the Library of Congress by Charles Henry Lincoln. Washington: GPO, 1906. 549 pp.

Lists primarily the naval documents of the American Revolution included in the "Papers of the Continental Congress." Second half of volume deals exclusively with Letter of Marque bonds.

U.S. Naval History Division. The American Revolution, 1775-1783: An Atlas of 18th Century Maps and Charts: Theaters of Operations. Compiled by W. Bart Greenwood. Washington: GPO, 1972.

A portfolio of 20 maps (17 3/4" x 23"), with a booklet containing an essay on the art of mapping and an index of 10,000 names.

-----. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. Edited by William Bell Clark and William James Morgan. Washington: Naval Historical Center; GPO, 1964-.

Contains contemporary records from provincial assemblies, committees of safety, the Continental Congress, letters, diaries journals, ships' logs, account books, and newspapers from American sources, as well as similar materials from British, French, Spanish, and other foreign archives, libraries, and museums. Illustrated with works of art, drawings, sketches, maps, and artifacts of the time. Indexed. With Vol. 5, William J. Morgan succeeded the late William Bell Clark as editor.

Vol. l, American Theatre, Dec. 1, 1774-Sept. 2, 1775, European Theatre, Dec. 6, 1774-Aug. 9, 1775; Vol. 2, American Theatre, Sept. 3, 1775-Dec. 7, 1775, European Theatre, Aug. 11, 1775- Oct. 31, 1775; Vol. 3, American Theatre, Dec. 8, 1775-Feb. 18, 1776, European Theatre, Nov. 1, 1775-Jan. 31, 1776; Vol. 4, American Theatre, Feb. 19, 1776-May 8, 1776, European Theatre, Feb. 1, 1776-May 25, 1776; Vol. 5, American Theatre, May 9, 1776-July 31, 1776; Vol. 6, American Theatre, Aug. 1, 1776-Oct. 31, 1776, European Theatre, May 26, 1776- Oct. 5, 1776; Vol. 7, American Theatre, Nov. 1, 1776-Feb. 28, 1777, European Theatre, Oct. 6, 1776-Dec. 31. 1776; Vol. 8, American Theatre, Mar. 1, 1777-May 31, 1777, European Theatre, Jan. l, 1777-May 31, 1777; Vol. 9, American Theatre, June 1, 1777- July 31, 1777, European Theatre, June 1, 1777-Sept. 30, 1777, American Theatre, Aug. 1, 1777-Sept. 30, 1777.

- ----. Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution. Washington: GPO, 1977. 36 pp.

Papers entitled "Naval Policy of the Continental Congress" and "Defeat at Sea: The Impact of American Naval Operations on Britain, 1775-1778," together with comments on the papers presented at the 1976 meeting of the Organization of American Historians.

American Revolution-Biography

Billias, George A. General John Glover and His Marblehead Mariners. New York: Holt, 1960. 243 pp.

Clark, William Bell. Captain Dauntless: The Story of Nicholas Biddle of the Continental Navy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1949. 317 pp.

-----. The First Saratoga, Being the Saga of John Young and His Sloop-of-War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1953. 199 pp.

-----. Gallant John Barry, 1745-1803: The Story of a Naval Hero of Two Wars. New York: Macmillan, 1938. 530 pp.

-----. Lambert Wickes, Sea Raider and Diplomat: The Story of a Naval Captain of the Revolution. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1932. 466 pp.

DeKoven, Anna (Mrs. Reginald). The Life and Letters of John Paul Jones. New York: Scribner, 1913. 2 vols.

Field, Edward. Esek Hopkins, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Navy During the American Revolution, 1775-1778. Providence: Preston & Rounds, 1898. 208 pp.

Footner, Hulbert. Sailor of Fortune: The Life and Adventures of Commodore Barney, U.S.N. New York: Harper, 1940. 323 pp.

Greenwood, Isaac J. Captain John Manley, Second in Rank in the United States Navy, 1776-1783. Boston: Goodspeed, 1915. 174 pp.

Howard, James L. Seth Harding, Mariner: A Naval Picture of the Revolution. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1930. 301 pp.

Lewis, Charles L. Admiral de Grasse and American Independence. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1945. 404 pp.

Lorenz, Lincoln. John Paul Jones, Fighter for Freedom and Glory. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1943. 846 pp. (Reprinted 1969 by Kraus).

Morgan, William J. Captains to the Northward: The New England Captains in the Continental Navy. Barre, Mass: Barre Gazette, 1959. 260 pp.

Mayo, Lawrence S. John Langdon of New Hampshire. Concord, N.H.: Rumford Press, 1937. 303 pp. (Reprinted 1970 by Kennikat).

Langdon served as a member of the Continental Congress, acted as an agent for Continental prizes, and built ships for the Navy.

Morgan, William J. Captains to the Northward: The New England Captains in the Continental Navy. Barre, Mass: Barre Gazette, 1959. 260 pp.

Morison, Samuel E. John Paul Jones, A Sailor's Biography. Boston: Little, Brown, 1959. 453 pp.

Sheppard, John H. The Life of Samuel Tucker, Commodore in the American Revolution. Boston: A. Mudge & Son, 1868. 384 pp.

Smith, Philip C. Captain Samuel Tucker (1747-1833), Continental Navy. Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1976. 115 pp.

First published as Vol. 112, No. 3, of the Institute's Historical Collections.

-----. Fired by Manley Zeal: A Naval Fiasco of the American Revolution. Salem, Mass.: Peabody Museum of Salem, 1977. 115 pp.

When Captains John Manley and Hector McNeill of the Continental Navy engaged an inferior British force in 1777, Manley's frigate Hancock and her prize were taken by the enemy.

Wagner, Frederick. Submarine Fighter of the American Revolution: The Story of David Bushnell. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1963. 145 pp.

British Participation

Published Sources

Abu-Shumays, Mary D. "British Views of America and the American Revolution, 1774-1783." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 59 (July 1976), pp. 289-318.

Adams, Charles Francis. "Contemporary Opinion on the Howes." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 44 (November 1910), pp. 94-119.

Adams, Randolph Greenfield. British Headquarters Maps and Sketches Used by Sir Henry Clinton While In Command of the British Forces Operating in North America. Ann Arbor: William L. Clements Library, 1928.

Anderson, Troyer S. The Command of the Howe Brothers During the American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1936.

André, John. Major André's Journal: Operations of the British Army Under Lieutenant Generals Sir William Howe and Sir Henry Clinton June 1777 to November 1778. Recorded by Major John André, Adjutant General. Edited by C. DeWitt Willcox. Tarrytown: William Abbatt, 1930.

-----, editor. "Letters of British Officers in America in 1776 (sic)." Historical Magazine, 5 (March 1861), pp. 68-70.

Atkinson, Christopher T. "British Forces in North America, 1774-1781: Their Distribution and Strength." Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 16 (Spring 1937), pp. 3-23; 19 (Autumn 1940), pp. 163-166; 20 (Winter 1941), pp. 190-192.

Baker, Norman. Government and Contractors: The British Treasury and War Supplies, 1775-1783. London: University of London, 1971.

Balch, Thomas, editor. "Mathew's Narrative." Historical Magazine, 1 (April 1857), pp. 102-106.

Balderston, Marion, and David Syrett, editors. The Lost War: Letters from British Officers during the American Revolution. New York: Horizon Press, 1975.

Bargar, B. D. Lord Dartmouth and the American Revolution. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1965.

Barrington, William Wildman, viscount. An Eighteenth-Century Secretary at War: The Papers of William, Viscount Barrington. Edited by Tony Hayter. London: The Army Records Society, 1988.

Beers, Henry P. "The Papers of the British Commanders in Chief in North America, 1754-1783." Military Affairs, 13 (Summer 1949), pp. 79-94.

Bill, E. G. W. "A Cadet at the Royal Military Academy, 1778-80." Journal of the Royal Artillery, 84 (October 1957), pp. 310-312.

Burns, R. E. "Ireland and British Military Preparations for War in America in 1775." Cithara, 2 (May 1963), pp. 42-61.

Burton, I. F., and A. N. Newman. "Sir John Cope: Promotion in the Eighteenth-Century Army." English Historical Review, 78 (October 1963), pp. 655-668.

Calver, William L. "Discoveries Made in British Camps of The American Revolution." Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association, 8 (April 1927), pp. 133-142.

Carter, Clarence E. "The Significance of the Military Office in America, 1763-1775." American Historical Review, 28 (April 1923), pp. 475-488.

Clark, Dora Mae. "The British Treasury and The Administration of Military Affairs in America, 1754-1774." Pennsylvania History, 2 (October 1935), pp. 197-204.

Clinton, Henry. The American Rebellion: Sir Henry Clinton's Narrative of His Campaigns, 1775-1782, With An Appendix of Original Documents. Edited by William B. Willcox. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954.

-----, and Maurice E. Jones. "British Colours in the American War of Independence." Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 54 (Spring 1976), p. 55.

Cornwallis, Charles. Correspondence of Charles, 1st Marquis Cornwallis. Edited by Charles Ross. 3 vols. London: J. Murray, 1859.

Corsar, Kenneth Charles, editor. "Letters From America, 1780 and 1781." Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 20 (Fall 1941), pp. 130-135.

  • ----. "The Recruiting of the British Army in the American Revolution." American Historical Association Annual Report for 1922, pp. 311-322.
  • Donoghue, Bernhard. British Politics and the American Revolution: The Path to War, 1773-75. London: Macmillan, 1964.

    Ford, Worthington C. "Parliament and the Howes." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 44 (November 1910), pp. 120-143.

    Frey, Sylvia Rae. The British Soldier in America: A Social History of Military Life in the Revolutionary Period. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.

    Geddes, James D. "British Colours in the American War of Independence." Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 53 (Summer 1975), pp. 123-124.

    Gee, Olive. "The British War Office in the Later Years of the American War of Independence." Journal of Modern History, 26 (June 1954), pp. 123-136.

    George III of Great Britain. The Correspondence of King George the Third From 1760 to December 1783. Edited by John W. Fortescue. 2d Edition. 6 vols. London: Frank Cass & Co., 1967.

    -----. "British Colours in the American War of Independence." Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 54 (Autumn 1976), p. 177.

    Graham, Samuel. "An English Officer's Account of His Services in America--1779-1781." Historical Magazine, 9 (August-November 1865), pp. 241-249, 267-274, 301-308, 329-335.

    Gruber, Ira D. The Howe Brothers and the American Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1972.

    Guthorn, Peter J. British Maps of the American Revolution. Monmouth Beach, N.J.: Philip Freneau Press, 1972.

    Gutridge, George H. "Lord George Germain in Office, 1775-1782." American Historical Review, 33 (October 1927), pp. 23-43.

    Harding, Richard. "Sailors and Gentlemen of Parade: Some Professional and Technical Problems Concerning the Conduct of Combined Operations in the Eighteenth Century." Historical Journal, 32 (March 1989), pp. 35-56.

    Hargreaves, Reginald. The Bloodybacks: The British Serviceman in North America and the Caribbean 1655-1783. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1968.

    Haslewood, William. "Journal of a British Officer During the American Revolution." Edited by Louise Phelps Kellogg. Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 7 (June 1920), pp. 51-58.

    Houlding, J. A. Fit For Service: The Training of the British Army 1715-1795. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

    Howe, William. "The Narrative of Lieut. Gen. Sir William Howe, &c." In Bellamy Partridge, Sir Billy Howe (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1932), pp. 261-289.

    Inman, George. "Losses of the Military and Naval Forces Engaged in the War of the American Revolution." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 27 (1903), pp. 176-205.

    Jones, Gwynfor. "The Royal Welch Fusiliers as Marines: 1778." Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 40 (Winter 1962), pp. 200-206.

    -----. "Officers and Other Ranks in the War of American Independence." Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 54 (Autumn 1976), pp. 171-175.

    -----. "The British High Command and Soldiers' Wives in America, 1755-1783." Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 60 (Spring 1982), pp. 14-34.

    -----, and John R. Elting. "Flank Companies, British Marines, 1774-1776." Military Collector and Historian, 35 (Winter 1983), p. 173.

    -----. "British Strategy in the War of American Independence." Yale Review, 71 (June 1963), pp. 539-557.

    Odintz, Mark Frederick. "The British Officer Corps, 1754-1783." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1988.

    Pargellis, Stanley M., and D. J. Medley. Bibliography of British History: The Eighteenth Century, 1714-1789. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1951.

    -----. List of War Office Records. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1908.

    Russell, Peter. "The Siege of Charleston: Journal of Captain Peter Russell, December 25, 1779, to May 2, 1780." Edited by James Bain, Jr. American Historical Review, 4 (April 1899), pp. 478-501.

    Stevens, Benjamin Franklin, editor. General Sir William Howe's Orderly Book at Charlestown, Boston and Halifax June 17, 1775 to 1776 26 May; to which is added the official abridgement of General Howe's correspondence with the English Government during the siege of Boston, and some military returns and now first printed from the original manuscripts. 1890. Reprint edition Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1970.

    Stirke, Henry. "A British Officer's Revolutionary War Journal, 1776-1778." Edited by S. Sydney Bradford. maryland Historical Magazine, 56 (June 1961), pp. 150-175.

    Stockbridge, J. C. "The Surrender of Cornwallis in England." Magazine of American History, 7 (November 1861), pp. 321-338.

    Syrett, David. "Lord George Germain and the Navy Board in Conflict: the Adamant and Arwin Galley Dispute, 1777." Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 38 (November 1968), pp. 163-171.

    -----. "Returns of His Majesty's Forces, 1768-1802." Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 60 (Summer 1982), pp. 118-123.

    -----. Lord North. 2 vols. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.

    Ward, R. C. "The Opposition of North-of-England Merchants to Lord North's American Policy." Thesis, University of Leeds, 1978.

    Wead, Eunice. "British Public Opinion of the Peace with America, 1782." American Historical Review, 34 (April 1929), pp. 513-531.

    Wells, David Franklin. "The Trial of Admiral Keppel, 1779: A Study of Political Opposition to the North Ministry." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1957.

    Willcox, William B. Portrait of a General: Sir Henry Clinton in the War of Independence. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964.

    Wilson, Ross M. A. "Notes on the Colours of the British Marine Corps During the 18th Century." Military Collector and Historian, 40 (Summer 1988), pp. 59-61.

    Buell, Richard, Jr. In Irons: Britain's Naval Supremacy and the American Revolutionary Economy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

    Chapelle, Howard I. The History of the American Sailing Navy: The Ships and Their Development. New York: Norton, 1949. Reprinted by Bonanza, 1988.

    Coletta, Paolo E., compiler. A Bibliography of American Naval History. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1981.

    Ford, Barbara and David C. Switzer. Under Water Dig: The Excavation of a Revolutionary War Privateer. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1982.

    Greene, Albert. Recollections of the Jersey Prison Ship. New York: H.H. Brown, 1829. Reprinted by Applewood Books, 1988.

    Lewis, James A. Neptune's Militia: The Frigate South Carolina during the American Revolution. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 1999.

    Lloyd, Christopher. The British Seaman. London: Collins, 1968.

    Lundeberg, Philip K. The Continental Gunboat Philadelphia and the Northern Campaign of 1776. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1966.

    McManemin, John A. Captains of the Continental Navy. Spring Lake Heights, NJ: Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing, 1982.

    -----. Captains of the Privateers of the American Revolution. Spring Lake Heights, NJ: Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing, 1985.

    -----. Captains of the State Navies of the American Revolution. Spring Lake Heights, NJ: Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing, 1984.

    -----. Sea Raiders from Connecticut During the American Revolution. Spring Lake Heights, NJ: Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing, nd.

    -----. Sea Raiders from Pennsylvania During the American Revolution. Spring Lake Heights, NJ: Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing, nd.

    Rodger, N.A.M. The Wooden World: An Anatomy of the Georgian Navy. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1986.

    Spavens, William. The Narrative of William Spavens: A Chatham Pensioner by Himself. With an Introduction by N.A.M. Rodger. London: Chatham Publishing,1988. A lower deck view from the Seven Years War.

    Tracy, Nicholas. Navies, Deterrence, & American Independence: Britain and Seapower in the 1760s and 1770s. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1988.

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